Vol. 1, No. 4 (November 1988) 163-180   

downloaded Downloaded: 209   viewed Viewed: 2155

J. M. Dickson and H. Mehdizadeh

Department of Chemical Engineering, McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
( Received: August 1988 )

Abstract    Reverse osmosis (RO). has become a standard unit operation in Chemical Engineering. This separation process can be used for a wide variety of applications including: desalination of sea water, treatment of industrial wastes, concentration of food products, and recovery of value materials from solution mixtures. In order to best utilize RO it is necessary to have a fundamental understanding of the process so that the optimum design can be reached. In this first part of a two-part series, the fundamental aspects of the RO process are reviewed, several transport models are summarized and the design equations necessary for scale up are presented. The emphasis is to provide a simple, practical, and yet comprehensive summary of the most relevant information that will be needed by a chemical engineer trying to apply reverse osmosis membranes to specific applications.



1. Applegate, L. E., Chem. Eng., (June.11. 1984), 64-89.
2. Slater, C. S., Ahlert, R. C. and Uchrin, C. G., Desalination, Vol. 48, (1983), 171-187.
3. Sourirajan, S., “Reverse Osmosis and Synthetic Membranes, theory-Technology-Engineering”, NRC Canada, Ottawa, (1977).
4. Bakish, R., In “Practice of Desalination” Bakish, R., Noyes Data Corp., New Jersy, Chap. 2, (1973).
5. Sourirajan, S., “Reverse Osmosis”, Academic Press, New York, Chapter 2 and Chapter 3, (1970).
6. Weast, R. C., “Handbook of Chemistry and Physics”, 64th Edition, CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio, (1983).
7. Castellan, G. W., “Physical Chemistry”, 2nd Edition, Addison-Wesley London, (1971), 297-301.
8. Cussler, E. L., “Diffusion, Mass Transfer in Fluid phase Systems”, Cambridge University Press, London, (1984).
9. Staverman, A. J., Recueil Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas, Vol. 70, (1951), 344-352.
10. Bird, R. B., Stewart, W. E. and Lightfoot, E. N. “Transport Phenomena”, Jhon Wiley and Sons, New York, Chapter, 17, (1960).
11. Kimura, S. and Souriiajan, S., AIChE J, Vol. 13, (1967), 497-503.
12. Gill, W. N., L. Derzansky, and Doshi, M. R., In “Surface and Colloid Science IV”, Jhon wiley and Sons, (1971), 261-360.
13. Matsuura, T., M. E., Bednas and Sourirajan, S., J. Appl. Polymer Sci, Vol. 18, (1974), 567-588.
14. Brian, P. L. T., In, “Desalination by Reverse Osmosis” Merten U., M. I T. Press., Cambridge, Mass., (1966), 161-202.
15. Jonsson, G., Boesen, C. E., Desalination, Vol. 17, (1975), 145-165.
16. Lioyd, D. R., “Material Science of Synthetic Membranes”, ACS Symposium Series, Washington D. C., No. 269, (1985).
17. Staverman, A. J., Memb, J. Sci., Vol. 16, (1983), 7-20.
18. Kesting, R. E., “Synthetic Polymeric Membranes”, 2nd Edition, Wiley, New York, (1985).
19. Kedem, O. and Katchalsky, A., Biochem. Biophys. Acta, Vol. 27, (1958), 229-246.
20. Onsager, L., Phys. Rev., Vol. 37, (1931), 405-425.
21. Soltanieh, M. and Gill, W. N., Chem. Eng.Commun, Vol. 12, (1981), 279-363.
22. Pusch, W., Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., Vol. 81, (1977), 269-276.
23. Spiegler, K. S. and Kedem, O. Deslination, Vol. 1, (1966), 311-326.
24. Burghoff, H.-G., Lee, K. L. and Pusch, W., J. Appl. Polymer Sci., Vol. 25, (1980), 323-347.
25. Jonsson, G., Desalination, Vol. 24, (1978), 19-37.
26. Lonsdale, H. K., Merten, and Riely, R. L.; J.Appl. PolymerSci., Vol. 9, (1965), 1341-1362.
27. Merten, U., In “Desalination by Reverse Osmosis” M. I. T. Press, Cambridge, Mass., (1966), 15-24.
28. Pusch, W., Burghoff, H. G. and E. Staude, Proc. 5th International Symposium on Fresh Water from the sea Vol. 4, (1976), 143-156.
29. Sherwood, T. K., Brian, P. L. T. and Fisher, R. E., Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundamentals, Vol. 6, (1967), 2-12.
30. Eriksson, P., presented at AIChE Annual Meeting, Chicago, (November. 1985).
31. Jonsson, G., Desalination,Vol. 35, (1980), 21-38.
32. Sourirajan, S., Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundamentals, Vol. 2, (1963), 51-55.
33. Spiegler, K. S., Trans. Faraday Soc., Vol. 54, (1958), 1408-1428.
34. Lane, J. A. and Riggle, J. W., Chem. Eng.Progr. Symposium Ser., Vol. 55, (1959), 127-143.
35. Bean, C. P., In, “Membranes- A Series of Advances”, Eisenman, G., Marcel-Dekker, Inc., New York, (1972).
36. Satterfield, C. N., Colton, C. K. and Pitcher Jr., W. H., AIChEJ, Vol. 19, (1973), 628-635.
37. Anderson , J. L. and Quinn, J. A., Biophys. J., Vol. 14, (1974), 130-150.
38.Faxen, H., Arkiv. Mat. Astron. Fys., Vol. 17, No. 27, (1923).

39. Fair, J. C. and Osterle, J. F., J. Chem. Phys., Vol. 54, (1971), 3307-3316.
40. Westerman-Clarke, G. B. and Anderson, J. L., J. Electrochem. Soc., Elecochem. Sci. Tech., Vol. 130, (1983), 839-847.
41. Anderson, J. L. and Malone, D. M., Biophys. J., Vol. 14, (1947), 957.
42. Neogi, P. and Ruckenstein, E., J. Coll. Int. Sci., Vol. 79, (1981), 159-169.
43. Jacazio, G, Probstein, R. F., Sonin, A. A. and Yung, D. , J. Phys. Chem., Vol. 76, (1972), 4015-4023.
44. Matsuura T., and Sourirajan, S., Ind. Eng.Chem. Process des. Dev., Vol. 20, (1981), 273-282.
45. Matsuura, T., Taketani, Y. and Sourirajan, S., In “Synthetic Membranes”, Turbak, A. F., ACS Symp Ser., Washington, D. C., Chap, 19, (1981).
46. Mehdizadeh, H. and Dickson, J. M., J. Memb. Sci., in press, (1988).
47. Belfort, G., J. Memb. Sci., Vol. 35, (1988), 245-270.
48. Saltonstall., C. W., Jr. and Lawrence, R. W., Desalination, Vol. 42, (1982), 247-253.
49. Sourirajan, S. and Ohya, H., In “Reverse Osmosis and Synthtic Membranes Theory-Technology-Engineering”, Sourirajan, S., NRC Canada, Ottawa, (1977).

International Journal of Engineering
E-mail: office@ije.ir
Web Site: http://www.ije.ir