IJE TRANSACTIONS A: Basics Vol. 26, No. 1 (January 2013) 45-50   

downloaded Downloaded: 330   viewed Viewed: 2556

S. M. Hosseini and M. Fadaei
( Received: October 13, 2012 – Accepted: November 15, 2012 )

Abstract    The objective of this study was to manufacture particleboard made from UF with low formaldehyde (E1) for use in indoor environments. The influence of UF in particles on the formaldehyde emission and its mechanical properties were investigated. The experimental results showed that the formaldehyde emission released decreased linearly with consumption UF-low formaldehyde- particle. Formaldehyde emission was below 0.3 mg/L when the weight percentage of UF particles was up to 60%. The formaldehyde emission from urea-formaldehyde resin-impregnated paper overlaid particleboard was 17% lower than UF ordinary (E2) for particleboard. Because, the bending strength, internal bonding strength decreased with increasing low-formaldehyde UF. However, the percentage thickness swelling of the particleboard decreased with increasing UF-low formaldehyde. In addition, there were significant positive relationships between the UF-low formaldehyde and the bending strength and internal bonding strength of the particleboard, which allowed evaluation of the properties of the particleboard made with UF-low formaldehyde


Keywords    Mechanical properties, UF, particleboard, formaldehyde


چکیده    موضوع این تحقیق مطالعه اثر تخته خرده چوب های ساخته شده با چسب اوره فرمالدهید دارای فرمالدهید پایین برای استفاده در مصارف درون ساختمانی است. تخته خرده چوب با چسب UF با فرمالدهید کم (E1) ساخته شد. خواص مکانیکی تخته های ساخته شده با چسب E1 اندازه گیری و نسبت به چسب E2 مقایسه شد. چسب UF مصرفی دارای 0.3 mg/L فرمالدهید آزاد برای رزین با غلظت 60 درصد بود. انتشار فرمالدهید رزین E1 نسبت به رزین E2 مقدار 17 درصد کمتر است. با استفاده از رزین E1 نسبت به E2 , مقاومت های مکانیکی و چسبندگی داخلی کاهش پیدا کرد. اما انتشار فرمالدهید آزاد ناشی از مصرف چسب E1 کمتر از E2 محاسبه شد


1.        Rowell, R.M. and Winandy, J.E., “Chemistry of wood strength”, Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites, CRC Press, London, (2006), 303-347.

2.        Baumann, M.G.D., Lorenz, L.F., Batterman, S.A. and Zhang, G.Z., “Aldehyde emission from particleboard and medium density fiberboard products”, Forest Products Journal, Vol. 50, (2000), 75–82.

3.        Wang, W.L. and Gardner, D.J., “Investigation of volatile organic compound press emissions during particleboard production: Part I. UF-bonded southern pine”, Forest Products Journal, Vol. 49, (1999), 65–75.

4.        Wang, W.L., Gardner, D.J. and Baumann, M.G.D., “Factors affecting volatile organic compound emissions during hot-pressing of southern pine particleboard”, Forest Products Journal, Vol. 53, (2003), 65–72.

5.        Wiglusz, R., Nikei, G., Igielska, G., Sitko, E., “Volatile organic compounds emissions from particleboard veneered with decorative paper foil”, Holzforschung, Vol. 56, (2002), 108–10.

6.        Wendler, S.L., Ni, J. and Frazier, C.E., “Analysis of the isocyanate-woodadhesive bonding using 15N CP/MAS NMR”, Wood Adhesives. Madison., Forest Product  Society, (1995), 37–42.

7.        Sun, Y.C. and Arima, T., “Structural mechanics of wood composite material: Ultrasonic propagation mechanism and internal bonding of particleboard”, Journal of Wood Science, Vol. 45, (2009), 221–6.

8.        Minemura, N., “To lessen formaldehyde liberation from the urea resin glued plywood”, Wood Industry, Vol. 31, (1976), 8–12.

9.        Liu, C.T., “Detected and liberated method of formaldehyde emission from particleboards”, Proceedings of Processing Techniques and Utilization, Chinese Forest Products Industry Association, (1987), 95–103.

10.     Liu, C.T., “Formaldehyde emission and liberated method of urea  resin glued plywood and its processing materials”, Plywood manufacturing techniques and management, Chinese Forest Products Industry Association, (1985), 57–67.

11.     European Committee for Standardization (CEN); DIN EN 622-5, “Wood based panels- Determination of modulus of elasticity in bending strength”, (1997).

12.     European Committee for Standardization (CEN); DIN EN 68754, “Wood based panels- Determination of internal bonding strength”, (1997).

13.     European Committee for Standardization (CEN); DIN EN 317, “Particleboards and fiberboards- Determination of swelling in thickness after immersion in water”, (1993).

14.     Grigoriou, A.H., “Straw-wood composites bonded with various adhesive systems”, Wood Science and Technology, Vol. 34, (2000), 355–65.

15.     Yang, T.H., Chen, B.J. and Wang, S.Y., “Properties of the lightweight OSB made from PF-resin impregnated flakes”, Forest Products Industries, Vol. 21, (2002), 39–50.

16.     Johns, W.E., Maloney, T.M., Huffaker, E.M., Saunders, J.B. and Lentz, M.T., “Isocyanate binders for particle-board manufacture”, 15th international symposium on particle board, Pullman, Washington State University, (1981), 213–39.

17.     George, I.M. and Antonios, N., “reducing the thickness swelling of wood based panels applying a nanotechnology compound”, Springer, verlag, Vol. 58, (2010), 18–28.

18.     Rowell, R.M. and Winandy, J.E., “Chemistry of wood strength”, Handbook of wood chemistry and wood composites, CRC Press, London, (2005), 303-347.

Bao, S., Daunch, W.A., Sun, Y., Rinaldi, P.L., Marcinko, J.J. and Phanopoulos, C., “Solid state two-dimensional NMR studies of polymeric biphenyl methane isocyanine (PMDI) reaction in wood”, Forest Products Journal, Vol. 53, (2003), 7.

International Journal of Engineering
E-mail: office@ije.ir
Web Site: http://www.ije.ir