IJE TRANSACTIONS A: Basics Vol. 27, No. 1 (January 2014) 39-50   

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S. M. Hosseinirad, M. Ali Mohammadi, S. K. Basu and A. A. Pouyan
( Received: June 01, 2013 – Accepted: September 14, 2013 )

Abstract    Routing is an important challenge in WSN due to the presence of hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is a hierarchical routing and data dissemination protocol. LEACH divides a network domain into several sub-domains that are called clusters. Non-uniformity of cluster distribution and CHs selection without considering the positions of other sensors may reduce the quality of cluster selection. Sensor nodes send data packets over long distances. Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) is an optimization algorithm inspired by social phenomenon. It considers colonization process as a stage of socio-political evolution. We improve performance of the LEACH algorithm using imperialist approach and study efficacy of it in terms of energy consumption, coverage and cluster uniformity and compare with those of the LEACH algorithm. Selection of suitable value for radio communication radius over the network lifetime is a trade-off between connectivity and sensors energy consumption. Empowering LEACH with ICA helps to find the best location of a CH in every cluster, it can conserve energy significantly, increase network lifetime, and maintain network connectivity. It can significantly reduce the number of active sensors going out of range over the lifetime of a network.


Keywords    WSN, Routing, ICA, Cluster Head, Active Sensor


چکیده    باتوجه به استفاده از صدها یا هزاران گره حسگر، مسیریابی یکی از چالشهای بسیارمهم در شبکه های حسگربیسیم می باشد. الگوریتم LEACH یک الگوریتم مبتنی بر مسیریابی سلسله مراتبی و پروتکل انتشار داده می باشد. الگوریتم LEACH ناحیه کاری شبکه را به چندین زیرناحیه که کلاستر نامیده می شود تقسیم می کند. توزیع نامناسب کلاسترها و انتخاب نامناسب سرکلاسترها بدون بررسی موقعیت مکانی سایر حسگرها، ممکن است به کاهش کیفیت انتخاب سرکلاسترها منجر شود.گره های حسگر بسته های داده را در فواصل دور ارسال میکنند. الگوریتم رقابت استعماری یک الگوریتم بهینه سازی است که از یک پدیده اجتماعی الهام گرفته است. این الگوریتم فرآیند استعمار را بعنوان یک پدیده اجتماعی بررسی می کند. در این مقاله ما با بهره گیری از الگوریتم رقابت استعماری راندمان الگوریتم LEACH را بهبود داده و کارایی آن را بر پارامتهایی نظیر مصرف انرژی، پوشش و پراکندگی یکنواخت کلاسترها مطالعه کرده و با الگوریتم LEACH مقایسه کرده ایم. انتخاب مقدار مناسب شعاع مخابراتی رادیویی در طول عمر شبکه تصمیم گیری میان اتصال در شبکه و مصرف انرژی گره های حسگر می باشد. قدرتمندسازی الگوریتم LEACH با کمک الگوریتم رقابت استعماری به یافتن بهترین مکان سرکلاستر در یک کلاستر، مصرف رضایتبخش انرژی، افزایش طول عمر شبکه و نگهداری پوشش شبکه کمک می کند. این قدرتمندسازی می تواند تعداد گره هایی حسگری خارج ازپوشش شبکه را بصورت قابل قبول کاهش دهد.



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