IJE TRANSACTIONS A: Basics Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2014) 1485-1494   

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M. Masomi, A. A. Ghoreyshi, G. D. Najafpour and A. R. B. Mohamed
( Received: November 13, 2013 – Accepted: May 22, 2014 )

Abstract    A new activated carbon was produced from pulp and paper mill sludge as a low cost precursor via chemical activation by zinc chloride. The activated carbon was successfully used for the adsorption of phenol and two of its derivatives, i.e. 2-chlorophenol and 4-nitrophenol from aqueous solutions. The characterization of the prepared activated carbon demonstrated high textural properties for the synthesized activated carbon. The results revealed the superior adsorption performance of the prepared activated carbon in this study compared to the commercial one. The effect of main affecting parameters such as pH, contact time, concentration and temperature on adsorption of phenolic compounds was experimentally investigated in discontinuous system. The adsorption capacities followed the order of 4-nitrophenol > 2-chlorophenol >phenol which was attributed to the property of substituent groups in their chemical structure. Among isotherm models used to describe experimental equilibrium data, the best match was obtained by Sips isotherm which revealed the heterogeneous behavior of the adsorption sites on the adsorbent surface. Kinetic study demonstrated that the adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Based on thermodynamic analysis, the negative values obtained for free Gibbs energy, enthalpy and entropy indicated spontaneous, exothermic and randomness behavior of the adsorption process, respectively.


Keywords    Adsorption; Precursor; Pulp and Paper Mill Sludge; Activated Carbon; Phenolic Compounds


چکیده    نوع جدیدی از کربن فعال با استفاده از لجن حاصل از کارخانجات چوب و کاغذ به عنوان یک پیش ماده ارزان قیمت از طریق فعال سازی با کلرید روی تولید گردید. سپس کربن فعال تولید شده با موفقیت برای جذب فنل و دو نمونه از مشتق هایش یعنی 2-کلرو فنل و 4-نیتروفنل از محلول های آبی مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. آنالیز کربن فعال تهیه شده بیانگر خواص ساختاری بالائی برای آن بوده که باعث عملکرد جذبی برتر آن نسبت به کربن فعال تجاری گردیده است. تاثیر پارامتر های مهم بر فرایند جذب مانند pH، زمان تماس، غلظت حل شونده و دما بر روی جذب ترکیبات فنلی بر روی کربن فعال تهیه شده به طور تجربی در سیستم ناپیوسته مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. ظرفیت های جذب بدست آمده در آزمایشات عبارت بودند از: فنل< 2-کلرو فنل<4-نیترو فنل که این ترتیب به خواص گروه های استخلافی در ساختار شیمیائی آنها نسبت داده شد. در میان معادلات همدمای جذب مورد استفاده برای توصیف جذب تعاددلی، بهترین برازش با استفاده از معادله Sips حاصل گردید که بیانگر ناهمگن بودن مراکز جذب بر روی سطح جاذب بوده است. مطالعه سینتیکی نشان داد که سینتیک جذب از معادله شبه درجه دوم تبعیت می کند. همچنین تحلیل ترمودینامیکی داده های جذب با توجه به مقادیر منفی بدست آمده برای انرژی آزاد گیبس، انتالپی و انترو پی جذب، به ترتیب بیانگر خود به خودی، گرماگیر و تصادفی بودن فرایند جدب سطحی بوده است.


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