Abstract




 
   

IJE TRANSACTIONS A: Basics Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2014) 1485-1494   

downloaded Downloaded: 478   viewed Viewed: 2657

  ADSORPTION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ONTO THE ACTIVATED CARBON SYNTHESIZED FROM PULP AND PAPER MILL SLUDGE: EQUILIBRIUM ISOTHERM, KINETICS, THERMODYNAMICS AND MECHANISM STUDIES
 
M. Masomi, A. A. Ghoreyshi, G. D. Najafpour and A. R. B. Mohamed
 
( Received: November 13, 2013 – Accepted: May 22, 2014 )
 
 

Abstract    A new activated carbon was produced from pulp and paper mill sludge as a low cost precursor via chemical activation by zinc chloride. The activated carbon was successfully used for the adsorption of phenol and two of its derivatives, i.e. 2-chlorophenol and 4-nitrophenol from aqueous solutions. The characterization of the prepared activated carbon demonstrated high textural properties for the synthesized activated carbon. The results revealed the superior adsorption performance of the prepared activated carbon in this study compared to the commercial one. The effect of main affecting parameters such as pH, contact time, concentration and temperature on adsorption of phenolic compounds was experimentally investigated in discontinuous system. The adsorption capacities followed the order of 4-nitrophenol > 2-chlorophenol >phenol which was attributed to the property of substituent groups in their chemical structure. Among isotherm models used to describe experimental equilibrium data, the best match was obtained by Sips isotherm which revealed the heterogeneous behavior of the adsorption sites on the adsorbent surface. Kinetic study demonstrated that the adsorption kinetics followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Based on thermodynamic analysis, the negative values obtained for free Gibbs energy, enthalpy and entropy indicated spontaneous, exothermic and randomness behavior of the adsorption process, respectively.

 

Keywords    Adsorption; Precursor; Pulp and Paper Mill Sludge; Activated Carbon; Phenolic Compounds

 

چکیده    نوع جدیدی از کربن فعال با استفاده از لجن حاصل از کارخانجات چوب و کاغذ به عنوان یک پیش ماده ارزان قیمت از طریق فعال سازی با کلرید روی تولید گردید. سپس کربن فعال تولید شده با موفقیت برای جذب فنل و دو نمونه از مشتق هایش یعنی 2-کلرو فنل و 4-نیتروفنل از محلول های آبی مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. آنالیز کربن فعال تهیه شده بیانگر خواص ساختاری بالائی برای آن بوده که باعث عملکرد جذبی برتر آن نسبت به کربن فعال تجاری گردیده است. تاثیر پارامتر های مهم بر فرایند جذب مانند pH، زمان تماس، غلظت حل شونده و دما بر روی جذب ترکیبات فنلی بر روی کربن فعال تهیه شده به طور تجربی در سیستم ناپیوسته مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. ظرفیت های جذب بدست آمده در آزمایشات عبارت بودند از: فنل< 2-کلرو فنل<4-نیترو فنل که این ترتیب به خواص گروه های استخلافی در ساختار شیمیائی آنها نسبت داده شد. در میان معادلات همدمای جذب مورد استفاده برای توصیف جذب تعاددلی، بهترین برازش با استفاده از معادله Sips حاصل گردید که بیانگر ناهمگن بودن مراکز جذب بر روی سطح جاذب بوده است. مطالعه سینتیکی نشان داد که سینتیک جذب از معادله شبه درجه دوم تبعیت می کند. همچنین تحلیل ترمودینامیکی داده های جذب با توجه به مقادیر منفی بدست آمده برای انرژی آزاد گیبس، انتالپی و انترو پی جذب، به ترتیب بیانگر خود به خودی، گرماگیر و تصادفی بودن فرایند جدب سطحی بوده است.

References   

1.     Rengaraj, S., Moon, S.-H., Sivabalan, R., Arabindoo, B. and Murugesan, V., "Agricultural solid waste for the removal of organics: Adsorption of phenol from water and wastewater by palm seed coat activated carbon", Waste Management,  Vol. 22, No. 5, (2002), 543-548.

2.     Lua, A.C. and Jia, Q., "Adsorption of phenol by oil–palm-shell activated carbons in a fixed bed", Chemical Engineering Journal,  Vol. 150, No. 2, (2009), 455-461.

3.     Ioannou, Z. and Simitzis, J., "Adsorption kinetics of phenol and 3-nitrophenol from aqueous solutions on conventional and novel carbons", Journal of Hazardous Materials,  Vol. 171, No. 1, (2009), 954-964.

4.     Kamble, S.P., Mangrulkar, P.A., Bansiwal, A.K. and Rayalu, S.S., "Adsorption of phenol and o-chlorophenol on surface altered fly ash based molecular sieves", Chemical Engineering Journal,  Vol. 138, No. 1, (2008), 73-83.

5.     Yavuz, Y. and Koparal, A.S., "Electrochemical oxidation of phenol in a parallel plate reactor using ruthenium mixed metal oxide electrode", Journal of Hazardous Materials,  Vol. 136, No. 2, (2006), 296-302.

6.     Esplugas, S., Gimenez, J., Contreras, S., Pascual, E. and Rodrı́guez, M., "Comparison of different advanced oxidation processes for phenol degradation", Water Research,  Vol. 36, No. 4, (2002), 1034-1042.

7.     Annachhatre, A. and Gheewala, S., "Biodegradation of chlorinated phenolic compounds", Biotechnology Advances,  Vol. 14, No. 1, (1996), 35-56.

8.     Agrios, A.G., Gray, K.A. and Weitz, E., "Photocatalytic transformation of 2, 4, 5-trichlorophenol on TiO2 under sub-band-gap illumination", Langmuir,  Vol. 19, No. 4, (2003), 1402-1409.

9.     Rzeszutek, K. and Chow, A., "Extraction of phenols using polyurethane membrane", Talanta,  Vol. 46, No. 4, (1998), 507-519.

10.   Bayram, E., Hoda, N. and Ayranci, E., "Adsorption/electrosorption of catechol and resorcinol onto high area activated carbon cloth", Journal of hazardous materials,  Vol. 168, No. 2, (2009), 1459-1466.

11.   Li, L., Quinlivan, P.A. and Knappe, D.R., "Effects of activated carbon surface chemistry and pore structure on the adsorption of organic contaminants from aqueous solution", Carbon,  Vol. 40, No. 12, (2002), 2085-2100.

12.   Ioannidou, O. and Zabaniotou, A., "Agricultural residues as precursors for activated carbon production—a review", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,  Vol. 11, No. 9, (2007), 1966-2005.

13.   Fytili, D. and Zabaniotou, A., "Utilization of sewage sludge in eu application of old and new methods—a review", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,  Vol. 12, No. 1, (2008), 116-140.

14.   Martin, M.J., Artola, A., Balaguer, M.D. and Rigola, M., "Activated carbons developed from surplus sewage sludge for the removal of dyes from dilute aqueous solutions", Chemical Engineering Journal,  Vol. 94, No. 3, (2003), 231-239.

15.   Dąbrowski, A., Podkościelny, P., Hubicki, Z. and Barczak, M., "Adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbon—a critical review", Chemosphere,  Vol. 58, No. 8, (2005), 1049-1070.

16.   Monsalvo, V.M., Mohedano, A.F. and Rodriguez, J.J., "Adsorption of 4-chlorophenol by inexpensive sewage sludge-based adsorbents", Chemical Engineering Research and Design,  Vol. 90, No. 11, (2012), 1807-1814.

17.   Khalili, N., Vyas, J., Weangkaew, W., Westfall, S., Parulekar, S. and Sherwood, R., "Synthesis and characterization of activated carbon and bioactive adsorbent produced from paper mill sludge", Separation and Purification Technology,  Vol. 26, No. 2, (2002), 295-304.

18.   Stüber, F., Smith, K., Mendoza, M.B., Marques, R., Fabregat, A., Bengoa, C., Font, J., Fortuny, A., Pullket, S. and Fowler, G., "Sewage sludge based carbons for catalytic wet air oxidation of phenolic compounds in batch and trickle bed reactors", Applied Catalysis B: Environmental,  Vol. 110, (2011), 81-89.

19.   Gorzin, F. and Ghoreyshi, A.A., "Synthesis of a new low-cost activated carbon from activated sludge for the removal of cr (vi) from aqueous solution: Equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamics and desorption studies", Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, (2013), 1-9.

20.   Hameed, B., Tan, I. and Ahmad, A., "Adsorption isotherm, kinetic modeling and mechanism of 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol on coconut husk-based activated carbon", Chemical Engineering Journal,  Vol. 144, No. 2, (2008), 235-244.

21.   Pirzadeh, K. and Ghoreyshi, A.A., "Phenol removal from aqueous phase by adsorption on activated carbon prepared from paper mill sludge", Desalination and Water Treatment,  Vol., No. ahead-of-print, (2013), 1-14.

22.   Liu, Q.-S., Zheng, T., Wang, P., Jiang, J.-P. and Li, N., "Adsorption isotherm, kinetic and mechanism studies of some substituted phenols on activated carbon fibers", Chemical Engineering Journal,  Vol. 157, No. 2, (2010), 348-356.

23.   Tsai, W., Lai, C. and Hsien, K., "Adsorption kinetics of herbicide paraquat from aqueous solution onto activated bleaching earth", Chemosphere,  Vol. 55, No. 6, (2004), 829-837.

24.   Kumar, S., Zafar, M., Prajapati, J.K., Kumar, S. and Kannepalli, S., "Modeling studies on simultaneous adsorption of phenol and resorcinol onto granular activated carbon from simulated aqueous solution", Journal of Hazardous Materials,  Vol. 185, No. 1, (2011), 287-294.

25.   Hamdaoui, O. and Naffrechoux, E., "Modeling of adsorption isotherms of phenol and chlorophenols onto granular activated carbon: Part ii. Models with more than two parameters", Journal of Hazardous Materials,  Vol. 147, No. 1, (2007), 401-411.

26.   Liu, F., Guo, Z., Zheng, S. and Xu, Z., "Adsorption of tannic acid and phenol on mesoporous carbon activated by CO2", Chemical Engineering Journal,  Vol. 183, (2012), 244-252.

27.   El-Naas, M.H., Al-Zuhair, S. and Alhaija, M.A., "Removal of phenol from petroleum refinery wastewater through adsorption on date-pit activated carbon", Chemical Engineering Journal,  Vol. 162, No. 3, (2010), 997-1005.

28.   Park, K.-H., Balathanigaimani, M., Shim, W.-G., Lee, J.-W. and Moon, H., "Adsorption characteristics of phenol on novel corn grain-based activated carbons", Microporous and Mesoporous Materials,  Vol. 127, No. 1, (2010), 1-8.

29.   Khan, M.A., Kim, S.-w., Rao, R.A.K., Abou-Shanab, R., Bhatnagar, A., Song, H. and Jeon, B.-H., "Adsorption studies of dichloromethane on some commercially available gacs: Effect of kinetics, thermodynamics and competitive ions", Journal of Hazardous Materials,  Vol. 178, No. 1, (2010), 963-972.

30.   Radnia, H., Ghoreyshi, A.A., Younesi, H. and Najafpour, G.D., "Adsorption of fe (ii) ions from aqueous phase by chitosan adsorbent: Equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies", Desalination and Water Treatment,  Vol. 50, No. 1-3, (2012), 348-359.

31.   Largergren, S., "Zur theorie der sogenannten adsorption geloster stoffe. Kungliga svenska vetenskapsakademiens", Handlingar,  Vol. 24, (1898), 1-39.

32.   Low, K., Lee, C. and Liew, S., "Sorption of cadmium and lead from aqueous solutions by spent grain", Process Biochemistry,  Vol. 36, No. 1, (2000), 59-64.

33.   Ho, Y.-S. and McKay, G., "Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes", Process Biochemistry,  Vol. 34, No. 5, (1999), 451-465.

34.   Yang, X. and Al-Duri, B., "Kinetic modeling of liquid-phase adsorption of reactive dyes on activated carbon", Journal of Colloid and Interface Science,  Vol. 287, No. 1, (2005), 25-34.

35.   Liu, Y., "Is the free energy change of adsorption correctly calculated?", Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data,  Vol. 54, No. 7, (2009), 1981-1985.





International Journal of Engineering
E-mail: office@ije.ir
Web Site: http://www.ije.ir