IJE TRANSACTIONS C: Aspects Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2014) 349-358   

downloaded Downloaded: 719   viewed Viewed: 2172

A. Rajabi and M. Kadkhodayan
( Received: June 27, 2012 – Accepted: September 14, 2013 )

Abstract    Abstract Fiber-metal laminates (FMLs) are new type of composite materials which could improve defects of traditional composites in ductility, formability, impact and damage tolerance. Drawing behavior of a thermoplastic based FML was investigated consisting of glass-fiber reinforced polypropylene composite laminate and aluminum AA1200-O as the core and skin layers, respectively. The effects of process variables consisting of blank-holder force, temperature, blank diameter and blank thickness were studied on the forming behavior of the FML. To reduce the number of experiments and investigate process variables on maximum drawing force and wrinkling of specimens, design of experiments was used. The experimental results were indicated that the general effects of blank-holder force on the failure mode in FMLs and the effects of blank diameter and blank thickness of a FML in deep drawing was similar to custom metals. Furthermore results were demonstrated that a high interaction between the temperature and the blank-holder force was required to remove the wrinkling. To validate the results of experiments, engineering constants of GFRP were obtained using Timoshenko’s beam theory and numerical simulations were performed by the finite element software, ABAQUS.


Keywords    Deep drawing, Fiber-metal laminate, Design of experiments, Finite element


چکیده    چكيده چند لايه های فلز کامپوزيت نوع جديدی از مواد کامپوزيتی هستند که مي­توانند معايب کامپوزيت های مرسوم را از لحاظ نرمی، شکل پذيری، ضربه پذيری و حاشيه خرابی بهبود بخشند. رفتار کششی يک چند لايه فلز کامپوزيتی گرمانرم مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است که هسته آن شامل چند لايه کامپوزيتی با پايه پلی­پروپيلن تقويت شده با الياف شيشه و لايه بيرونی آن آلومينيوم –o1200 می­باشد. تاثير متغيرهای فرآيند شامل: نيروی ورق گير، دما، قطر و ضخامت نمونه روی رفتار کششی فلز کامپوزيت مطالعه شده است. برای کاهش تعداد آزمايش­ها و بررسی متغير­های فرآيند روی ماکزيمم نيروی شکل دهی و چروکيدگی نمونه­ها از طراحی آزمايش­ها استفاده شده است. نتايج آزمايش­ها نشان دادند که تاثيرکلی نيروی ورق­گير روی واماندگی فلز کامپوزيت و اثر قطر نمونه و ضخامت نمونه يک فلز کامپوزيت در کشش عميق مشابه تاثير اين متغيرها برروی فلزات رايج می­باشد. علاوه بر آن، نتايج نشان می­دهند که برای حذف چروکيدگی، اثر همزمان دما و نيروی ورق گير به ميزان بالايی مورد نياز است. برای اعتبار سنجی نتايج آزمايش­ها، ثابت­های مهندسی کامپوزيت با پايه پلی­پروپيلن تقويت شده با الياف شيشه با استفاده از تئوری تير تيموشنکو بدست آمدند و شبيه سازی عددی بوسيله نرم افزار اجزاء محدود ابوکوس انجام شد.



1.        Wang, L., Chan, L.C. and Lee, T.C., “Process modeling of controlled forming with variant blank holder force using RSM method”, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 47, (2007), 1929-1940.

2.        Padmanabhan, R., Oliveira, M.C., Alves, J.L. and Menezes L.F., “Influence of process parameters on the deep drawing of stainless steel”, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, Vol. 43, (2007), 1062-1067.

3.        Özek, C. and Ünal, E., “Optimization and Modeling of Angular Deep Drawing Process for Square Cups”, Materials and Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 26, (2011), 1117-1125.

4.        Arab, N. and Nazaryan, E., “Analytical modeling of axi-symmetric sheet metal forming”, International Journal of Engineering, Vol. 24, (2011), 55-63.

5.        Rezaiee-Pajand, M. and Moayyedian, F., “A closed-form non- linear solution for plastic flange wrinkling of circular plates in deep drawig process”, International Journal of Engineering, Vol. 23, (2010), 203-214.

6.        De Magalhães Correia, J.P. and Ferron, G., “Wrinkling of anisotropic metal sheets under deep-drawing: analytical and numerical study”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 155-156, (2004), 1604-1610.

7.        Mosse, L., Cantwell, W., Cardew-Hall, M., Compston, P. and Kalyanasundaram, S., “Effect of process temperature and blank-holder force on the forming of fibre metal laminate systems, Proceedings of 11th European conference on composite materials, Rhodes, Greece, 2004.

8.        Mosse, L., Cantwell, W., Cardew-Hall, M., Compston, P. and Kalyanasundaram, S., “Investigation of process temperature on the cup forming of fibre–metal-laminate systems”, International Conference on Sheet Metal, (2005).

9.        Gresham, J., Cantwell, W., Cardew-Hall, M. J., Compston, P. and Kalyanasundaram, S., “Drawing behaviour of metal–composite sandwich structures”, Composite Structures, Vol. 75, (2006), 305-312.

10.     Morovvati, M.R., Mollaei-Dariani, B. and Asadian-Ardakani, M.H., “A theoretical, numerical, and experimental investigation of plastic wrinkling of circular two-layer sheet metal in the deep drawing”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 210, (2010), 1738-1747.

11.     Atrian, A. and Fereshteh-Saniee, F., “Deep drawing process of steel/brass laminated sheets”, Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 47, (2013), 75–81.

12.     Davey, S., Das, R., Cantwell, W. and Kalyanasundaram, S., “Forming studies of carbon fibre composite sheets in dome forming processes”, Composite Structures, Vol. 97, (2013), 310–316.

13.     American Society for Testing Materials, “Annual book of ASTM standards”, ASTM International, (2005).

14.     Caprino, G., Iaccarino, P. and Lamboglia, A., The effect of shear on the rigidity in three-point bending of unidirectional CFRP laminates made of T800H/3900-2”, Composite Structures, Vol. 88, (2009), 360-366.

15.     Kaneko, T., “On Timoshenko's correction for shear in vibrating beams”, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 8, (1975), 1927-1936.

16.     Kennedy, Graeme J., Hansen, Jorn S., Martins, Joaquim R. R. A., “A Timoshenko beam theory with pressure corrections for layered orthotropic beams”, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 48, (2011), 2373-2382.

17.     Timoshenko, S. P., “On the transverse vibrations of bars of uniform cross section”, Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 43, (1922), 125-131.

18.     ABAQUS Inc, ABAQUS analysis: user's manual”, (2006).

Parsa, M.H. and Ettehad, M., “Prediction of delamination during deep-drawing of Steel-polymer-steel sandwich sheet materials”, International Conference on Technology of Plasticity, (2008), 980-985.  

International Journal of Engineering
E-mail: office@ije.ir
Web Site: http://www.ije.ir