IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 28, No. 2 (February 2015) 180-189   

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G Moradi and A. R. Abbasnejad
( Received: May 09, 2014 – Accepted: November 13, 2014 )

Abstract    In the current paper the results of a numerical simulation that were verified by a well instrumented experimental procedure for studying the arching effect over a trapdoor in sand is presented. To simulate this phenomenon with continuum mechanics, the experimental procedure is modeled in ABAQUS code using stress dependent hardening in elastic state and plastic strain dependent frictional hardening-softening with Mohr Coulomb failure criterion applying user sub-routine. The apparatus comprises concentric circular trapdoors with different diameters that can yield downward while stresses and deformations are recorded simultaneously. As the trapdoor starts to yield, the whole soil mass deforms elastically. However, after an immediate specified displacement, depending on the diameter of the trapdoor, the soil mass behaves plastically. This behavior of sand occurs due to the flow phenomenon and continues until the stress on trapdoor is minimized. Then the failure process develops in sand and the measured stress on the trapdoor shows an ascending trend. This indicates gradual separation of the yielding mass from the whole soil body. Finally, the flow process leads to establish a stable vault of sand called arching mechanism or progressive collapse of the soil body.


Keywords    Arching effect, Modified Mohr Coulomb, Frictional hardening-softening, ABAQUS.


چکیده    در این مقاله نتایج شبیه سازی عددی با نتایج حاصل از مدل آزمایشگاهی جهت بررسی پدیده قوس در ماسه ارائه شده است. روش آزمایشگاهی دقیقاً در نرم افزار ABAQUS مدل سازی گردیده و از رفتار سخت شدگی وابسته به تنش در قسمت الاستیک و همچنین سخت شدگی و نرم شدگی وابسته به کرنش پلاستیک همراه با معیار گیسختگی موهر- کولمب استفاده شده است. این رفتار توسط زیربرنامه دیگری در نرم افزار تعریف گردید. در مدل فیزیکی از دریچه های دایروی با اقطار مختلف و با قابلیت حرکت به سمت پایین همراه با ابزاربندی جهت قرائت تنش ها و جابجایی ها بهره گرفته شده است. زمانی که دريچه شروع به پايين آمدن می‌کند،توده خاک بالای دريچه در محدوده الاستيک جابه‌جا می‌شود. سپس، بعد از يک جابه‌جايي مشخص، که مقدار آن بستگی به قطر دريچه و دانسيته نسبی ماسه دارد، توده رفتار پلاستيک از خود نشان می‌دهد. اين رفتار ماسه، که بدليل بروز پديده جريان به وقوع می‌پيوندد، تا آنجا که تنش روی دريچه کمترين شود، ادامه می‌يابد، تا اين که گسيختگی در توده به وقوع می‌پيوندد و تنش اندازه‌گيری شده روی دريچه به سمت يک مقدار معين ميل می‌کند. اين مرحله جدا شدگی قسمتی از توده از ماسه مجاور می‌باشد و یا گسیختگی پیش رونده تا سطح ماسه ادامه پیدا می کند که منجر به افزایش تنش اعمال شده به دریچه می شود.



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