IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 29, No. 2 (February 2016) 145-151    Article Under Final Proof

downloaded Downloaded: 375   viewed Viewed: 3570

S. Rezaei, G. D. Najafpour, M. Mohammadi, A. A. Moghadamnia and S. Kazemi
( Received: January 17, 2016 – Accepted: March 03, 2016 )

Abstract    Curcumin is a natural bioactive compound originated from the rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). This study was performed to investigate formic acid and microwave assisted extraction of curcumin from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). In order to enhance the curcumin extraction, different parameters such as particle size, effect of pretreatment with water, radiation intensity and type of solvent were investigated. For analysis of curcumin content, two methods were developed. Spectrophotometric methods at the stage of optimization and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of the purity of curcumin were used. At particle size of 0.21mm and input power of 100W using acetone as organic solvent, the highest curcumin extraction yields were achieved. The results showed that water is a suitable modifier for the pretreatment of turmeric with microwave irradiation. For purification of curcumin in HPLC analysis, methanol and water were used as co-solvents. Maximum obtained curcumin purity was 82.4%.


Keywords    Acetone; Curcumin; Formic acid; Microwave; Turmeric


چکیده    کورکومین یک ماده طبیعی است که از ریزوم گیاه زردچوبه استخراج می­شود. این مطالعه جهت بررسی استخراج کورکومین از ریزوم زردچوبه با کمک امواج مایکروویو و فرمیک اسید انجام شده است. به منظور افزایش میزان استخراج کورکومین، پارامترهای مختلفی مانند سایز ذره، تاثیر پیش تیمار زردچوبه با آب، شدت تشعشع و نوع حلال بررسی گردید. برای آنالیز میزان کورکومین، از دو روش متفاوت اسپکتروفوتومتری و کروماتوگرافی مایع با عملکرد بالا (HPLC) به ترتیب برای مراحل بهینه­سازی و خالص­سازی استفاده شد. بالاترین غلظت کورکومین زمانی به دست آمد که سایز ذره 21/0 میلی­متر بود و از توان 100 وات و حلال آلی استون برای استخراج استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که آب حلال مناسبی برای پیش تیمار زردچوبه با تشعشع مایکروویو است. برای خالص­سازی کورکومین، حلال آب و متانول به کار گرفته شد. ماکزیمم خلوص کورکومین 4/82% به دست آمد.



1.     Zaibunnisa, A., Norashikin, S., Mamot, S. and Osman, H., "Stability of curcumin in turmeric oleoresin-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex during storage (kestabilan kurkumin di dalam kompleks rangkuman oleoresin-β-siklodekstrin semasa penyimpanan)", Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences,  Vol. 13, No. 2, (2009), 165-169.

2.     Smith, A.J., Oertle, J. and Prato, D., "Multiple actions of curcumin including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and enhancement via cyclodextrin", Journal of Cancer Therapy,  Vol. 6, No. 03, (2015).

3.     Hosseinimehr, S.J., "A review of preventive and therapeutic effects of curcumin in patients with cancer", Journal of Clinical Excellence,  Vol. 2, No. 2, (2014), 50-63.

4.     Das, R.K., Kasoju, N. and Bora, U., "Encapsulation of curcumin in alginate-chitosan-pluronic composite nanoparticles for delivery to cancer cells", Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine,  Vol. 6, No. 1, (2010), 153-160.

5.     Peret-Almeida, L., Cherubino, A., Alves, R., Dufosse, L. and Gloria, M., "Separation and determination of the physico-chemical characteristics of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin", Food Research International,  Vol. 38, No. 8, (2005), 1039-1044.

6.     Euterpio, M.A., Cavaliere, C., Capriotti, A.L. and Crescenzi, C., "Extending the applicability of pressurized hot water extraction to compounds exhibiting limited water solubility by ph control: Curcumin from the turmeric rhizome", Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry,  Vol. 401, No. 9, (2011), 2977-2985.

7.     Kurmudle, N., Kagliwal, L.D., Bankar, S.B. and Singhal, R.S., "Enzyme-assisted extraction for enhanced yields of turmeric oleoresin and its constituents", Food Bioscience,  Vol. 3, (2013), 36-41.

8.     Mandal, V., Mohan, Y. and Hemalatha, S., "Microwave assisted extraction of curcumin by sample–solvent dual heating mechanism using taguchi l 9 orthogonal design", Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis,  Vol. 46, No. 2, (2008), 322-327.

9.     Nabati, M., Mahkam, M. and Heidari, H., "Isolation and characterization of curcumin from powdered rhizomes of turmeric plant marketed in maragheh city of iran with soxhlet technique", Iranian Chemical Communication,  Vol. 2, (2014), 236-243.

10.   Wakte, P., Sachin, B., Patil, A., Mohato, D., Band, T. and Shinde, D., "Optimization of microwave, ultra-sonic and supercritical carbon dioxide assisted extraction techniques for curcumin from curcuma longa", Separation and Purification Technology,  Vol. 79, No. 1, (2011), 50-55.

11.   Baumann, W., Rodrigues, S. and Viana, L., "Pigments and their solubility in and extractability by supercritical CO2-i: The case of curcumin", Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering,  Vol. 17, No. 3, (2000), 323-328.

12.   Chassagnez-Mendez, A.L., Machado, N.T., Araujo, M.E., Maia, J. and Meireles, M.A.A., "Supercritical co2 extraction of curcumins and essential oil from the rhizomes of turmeric (curcuma longa l.)", Industrial &Engineering Chemistry Research,  Vol. 39, No. 12, (2000), 4729-4733.

13.   Verma, S.C., "Development of a rapid separation process for curcumin from Curcuma longa L. Rhizomes and its quantification by HPLC-PDA", World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 7, (2014), 752-761.

14.   Veggi, P.C., Martinez, J. and Meireles, M.A.A., Fundamentals of microwave extraction, Microwave-Assisted Extraction for Bioactive Compounds, Springer,(2012), 15-52.

15.   W. Setyaningsih , I.E.S., M. Palma , C.G. Barroso, "Optimisation and validation of the microwave-assisted extractionof phenolic compounds from rice grains", Food Chemistry,  Vol. 169, (2015), 141-149.

16.   Nkhili, E., Tomao, V., El Hajji, H., El Boustani, E.-S., Chemat, F. and Dangles, O., "Microwave-assisted water extraction of green tea polyphenols", Phytochemical Analysis,  Vol. 20, No. 5, (2009), 408-415.

17.   Jyothi, D., Khanam, S. and Sultana, R., "Optimization of microwave assisted solvent extraction of withanolides from leaves of ashwagandha", International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences,  Vol. 2, No. 4, (2010),

18.   Zhou, H.-Y. and Liu, C.-Z., "Microwave-assisted extraction of solanesol from tobacco leaves", Journal of Chromatography A,  Vol. 1129, No. 1, (2006), 135-139.

19.   Hao, J.-y., Han, W., Xue, B.-y. and Deng, X., "Microwave-assisted extraction of artemisinin from Artemisia annua L.", Separation and Purification Technology,  Vol. 28, No. 3, (2002), 191-196.

20.   Talebi, M., Ghassempour, A., Talebpour, Z., Rassouli, A. and Dolatyari, L., "Optimization of the extraction of paclitaxel from Taxus baccata L. By the use of microwave energy", Journal of Separation Science,  Vol. 27, No. 13, (2004), 1130-1136.

21.   Pan, X., Niu, G. and Liu, H., "Microwave-assisted extraction of tanshinones from salvia miltiorrhiza bunge with analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography", Journal of Chromatography A,  Vol. 922, No. 1, (2001), 371-375.

22.   Shu, Y.Y., Ko, M.Y. and Chang, Y.S., "Microwave-assisted extraction of ginsenosides from ginseng root", Microchemical Journal,  Vol. 74, No. 2, (2003), 131-139.

23.   A. P. Gupta , Gupta, M.M. and Kumar, S., "Simultaneous determination of curcuminoids in curcuma samples using high performance thin layer chromatography", Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies,  Vol. 22, No. 10, (1999), 1561–1569.

24.   Pathania, V., Gupta, A.P. and Singh, B., "Improved hptlc method for determination of curcuminoids from curcuma longa", Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies,  Vol. 29, No. 6, (2006), 877-887.

25.   Gangwar, R.K., Tomar, G.B., Dhumale, V.A., Zinjarde, S., Sharma, R.B. and Datar, S., "Curcumin conjugated silica nanoparticles for improving bioavailability and its anticancer applications", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,  Vol. 61, No. 40, (2013), 9632-9637.

International Journal of Engineering
E-mail: office@ije.ir
Web Site: http://www.ije.ir