Abstract




 
   

IJE TRANSACTIONS A: Basics Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2016) 436-443   

downloaded Downloaded: 270   viewed Viewed: 2720

  LIPASE CATALYZED INCORPORATION OF CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID BY TRANSESTERIFICATION INTO SUNFLOWER OIL APPLYING IMMOBILIZED LIPASE (LIPOZYME THERMOMYCES LANUGINOSUS AND RHIZOMUCOR MEHEI)
 
Z. Kouchak Yazdi and I. Alemzadeh
 
( Received: March 06, 2016 – Accepted in Revised Form: April 14, 2016 )
 
 

Abstract    Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA), Glycerol (G) and sunflower oil blends with varying concentration were subjected to enzymatic esterification using a 1, 3- specific immobilized lipase. CLA was used as acyl due to its purported health benefits. The transesterified lipids were evaluated for free fatty acids (FFA) and composition of fatty acids by gas chromatography. Lipozyme RM IM is preferred for enzymatic esterification because of more CLA incorporation and less free fatty acids at the end of reaction than Lipozyme TL IM. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the effects of three variables Glycerol concentration, reaction temperature, and amount of enzyme on the lipase catalyzed incorporation of CLA into Sunflower oil. The optimum condition for maximum CLA incorporation (96.7% Incorporation Yield), maximum reaction rate (0.0271 M/h) and minimum free fatty acids production (Acid No.2.73) was obtained, at 75 ̊C by using 3 % enzyme and 0.27 M glycerol.

 

Keywords    Conjugated linoleic acid, Response surface methodology, Sunflower oil, Immobilized lipase

 

چکیده    [if gte mso 9]> مخلوط اسيد لينولئيک مزدوج CLA، گلیسرول و روغن آفتابگردان با ترکیب درصدهای مختلف جهت انجام واکنش استریفیکاسیون آنزیمی به وسیله لیپاز تثبیت شده با انتخاب پذیری جایگاه 1و3 استفاده شد. اسيد لينولئيک مزدوج به سبب خواص بيولوژيکي بسيار مفيد استفاده شد. ترکیب اسیدهای چرب نمونه­های نهایی پس از فرآیند استری شدن توسط کروماتوگرافی گازی به دست آمد. با توجه به نتایج آنزیم لیپوزیم RM IM و جذب بیشتر CLA به بدنه تریگلیسرید و کاهش قابل توجه اسیدیته مخلوط واکنش در طول انجام واکنش جهت انجام این واکنش ارجحیت دارد. روش پاسخ سطحی جهت بررسی اثرات متغییرهای غلظت گلیسرول، دمای واکنش و مقدار آنزیم به کار گرفته شد. در بهينه سازي فرآيند براي توليد روغنی با حداکثر CLA جذب شده، حد اکثر سرعت واکنش، حداقل اسيدهاي چرب آزاد و به حداقل رساندن افت روغن، شرایط بهینه در دمای75 درجه سانتی­گراد و با استفاده از 3 درصد آنزیم و 0.27(M) گلیسرول با 96.7% بازده جذب CLA به دست آمد.

References   

1.     Torres, C.F., Lin, B., Lessard, L.P. and Hill, C.G., "Lipase-mediated transesterification of menhaden oil with the ethyl ester of conjugated linoleic acid: Multi-response kinetics", Biochemical Engineering Journal,  Vol. 23, No. 2, (2005), 107-116.

2.     Andrade, J.C., Ascencao, K., Gullon, P., Henriques, S., Pinto, J., ROCHASANTOS, T.A., Freitas, A.C. and GOMES, A., "Production of conjugated linoleic acid by foodgrade bacteria: A review", International Journal of Dairy Technology,  Vol. 65, No. 4, (2012), 467-481.

3.     Pariza, M.W. and Ha, Y.L., Newly recognized anticarcinogenic fatty acids, in Antimutagenesis and anticarcinogenesis mechanisms ii. (1990), Springer.167-170.

4.     Hernandez-Diaz, G., Alexander-Aguilera, A., Arzaba-Villalba, A., Soto-Rodriguez, I. and García, H.S., "Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat, tumor necrosis factor alpha and resistin secretion in spontaneously hypertensive rats", Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids,  Vol. 82, No. 2, (2010), 105-109.

5.     Xu, X., "Production of specificstructured triacylglycerols by lipasecatalyzed reactions: A review", European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology,  Vol. 102, No. 4, (2000), 287-303.

6.     Gursoy, O., Seckin, A.K., Kinik, O. and Karaman, A.D., "The effect of using different probiotic cultures on conjugated linoleic acid (cla) concentration and fatty acid composition of white pickle cheese", International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition,  Vol. 63, No. 5, (2012), 610-615.

7.     Kramer, J.K., Cruz-Hernandez, C., Deng, Z., Zhou, J., Jahreis, G. and Dugan, M.E., "Analysis of conjugated linoleic acid and trans 18: 1 isomers in synthetic and animal products", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition,  Vol. 79, No. 6, (2004), 1137S-1145S.

8.     Chin, S., Liu, W., Storkson, J., Ha, Y. and Pariza, M., "Dietary sources of conjugated dienoic isomers of linoleic acid, a newly recognized class of anticarcinogens", Journal of Food Composition and Analysis,  Vol. 5, No. 3, (1992), 185-197.

9.     Churruca, I., FernandezQuintela, A. and Portillo, M.P., "Conjugated linoleic acid isomers: Differences in metabolism and biological effects", Biofactors,  Vol. 35, No. 1, (2009), 105-111.

10.   Rousseau, D. and Marangoni, A.G., "Tailoring the textural attributes of butter fat/canola oil blends via rhizopus arrhizus lipase-catalyzed interesterification. 2. Modifications of physical properties", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,  Vol. 46, No. 6, (1998), 2375-2381.

11.   Alim, M., Lee, J.-H., Shin, J.-A., Lee, Y., Choi, M.-S., Akoh, C. and Lee, K.-T., "Lipase-catalyzed production of solid fat stock from fractionated rice bran oil, palm stearin, and conjugated linoleic acid by response surface methodology", Food Chemistry,  Vol. 106, No. 2, (2008), 712-719.

12.   Garcia, H., Keough, K., Arcos, J. and Hill, C., "Interesterification (acidolysis) of butterfat with conjugated linoleic acid in a batch reactor", Journal of Dairy Science,  Vol. 83, No. 3, (2000), 371-377.

13.   Kim, I.-H., Yoon, C. and Lee, K.W., "Transesterification of conjugated linoleic acid and tricaprylin by lipases in organic solvents", Food Research International,  Vol. 34, No. 4, (2001), 301-306.

14.   Lee, J.-H., Shin, J.-A., Lee, J.-H. and Lee, K.-T., "Production of lipase-catalyzed structured lipids from safflower oil with conjugated linoleic acid and oxidation studies with rosemary extracts", Food Research International,  Vol. 37, No. 10, (2004), 967-974.

15.   Torres, C.F. and Hill, C.G., "Lipasecatalyzed acidolysis of menhaden oil with conjugated linoleic acid: Effect of water content", Biotechnology and Bioengineering,  Vol. 78, No. 5, (2002), 509-516.

16.   Yi, D., Sun, X., Li, G., Liu, F., Lin, X. and Shen, J., "Optimization of conjugated linoleic acid triglycerides via enzymatic esterification in no-solvent system", Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology,  Vol. 27, (2009), 574-577.

17.   Martinez, C.E., Vinay, J.C., Brieva, R., Hill Jr, C.G. and Garcia, H.S., "Lipasecatalyzed interesterification (acidolysis) of corn oil and conjugated linoleic acid in organic solvents", Food Biotechnology,  Vol. 13, No. 2, (1999), 183-193.

18.   Goli, S.A.H., Kadivar, M., Keramat, J. and Fazilati, M., "Conjugated linoleic acid (cla) production and lipasecatalyzed interesterification of purified cla with canola oil", European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology,  Vol. 110, No. 5, (2008), 400-404.

19.   Yazdi, Z.K. and Alemzadeh, I., "Improvement of palm oil and sunflower oil blends by enzymatic interestrification", International Journal of Food Science & Technology,  Vol. 46, No. 5, (2011), 1093-1099.


20.   Gofferje, G., Stabler, A., Herfellner, T., Schweiggert-Weisz, U. and Flöter, E., "Kinetics of enzymatic esterification of glycerol and free fatty acids in crude jatropha oil by immobilized lipase from rhizomucor miehei", Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic,  Vol. 107, (2014), 1-7.

21.   Farmani, J., Hamedi, M., Safari, M. and Madadlou, A., "Trans-free iranian vanaspati through enzymatic and chemical transesterification of triple blends of fully hydrogenated soybean, rapeseed and sunflower oils", Food chemistry,  Vol. 102, No. 3, (2007), 827-833.

22.   Rousseau, D. and Marangoni, A.G., "The effects of interesterification on physical and sensory attributes of butterfat and butterfat–canola oil spreads", Food Research International,  Vol. 31, No. 5, (1998), 381-388.

23.   Society, A.O.C. and Firestone, D., "Official methods and recommended practices of the american oil chemists' society, AOCS Champaign, IL, USA,  Vol. 5,  (1989).

24.   Stat-Ease, M.R., "Tutorial (part 2—optimization)", Design-Expert Software Version,  Vol. 7, No. 5.

25.   Dormo, N., Belafi-Bako, K., Bartha, L., Ehrenstein, U. and Gubicza, L., "Manufacture of an environmental-safe biolubricant from fusel oil by enzymatic esterification in solvent-free system", Biochemical Engineering Journal,  Vol. 21, No. 3, (2004), 229-234.

26.   Chowdary, G. and Prapulla, S., "Kinetic study on lipase-catalyzed esterification in organic solvents", Indian Journal of Chemistry Section B,  Vol. 44, No. 11, (2005), 2322-2331.

27.   Myers, R.H., Montgomery, D.C., Vining, G.G., Borror, C.M. and Kowalski, S.M., "Response surface methodology: A retrospective and literature survey", Journal of Quality Technology,  Vol. 36, No. 1, (2004), 53-62.

28.   Alim, M., Lee, J.-H., Akoh, C., Choi, M.-S., Jeon, M.-S., Shin, J.-A. and Lee, K.-T., "Enzymatic transesterification of fractionated rice bran oil with conjugated linoleic acid: Optimization by response surface methodology", LWT-Food Science and Technology,  Vol. 41, No. 5, (2008), 764-770.





International Journal of Engineering
E-mail: office@ije.ir
Web Site: http://www.ije.ir