IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 30, No. 8 (August 2017) 1205-1214   

downloaded Downloaded: 83   viewed Viewed: 1688

Paramashivaiah. B. M and Rajashekhar. C. R
( Received: March 20, 2017 – Accepted in Revised Form: July 07, 2017 )

Abstract    Graphene is a monolayer carbon atoms discovered in the recent past which has inspired researchers in a wide range of applications. It has a surface area as high as 2630 m2/g and thermal conductivity value of 3000 W/mK-1 at room temperature. It is chemically the most reactive form of carbon with one carbon atom exposed to reaction from each side. Stable dispersion of graphene was achieved using sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant. Graphene nanofuel was prepared by dispersing of graphene in simarouba methyl ester blend with diesel. The dispersion was characterized using the ultra violet visible spectrometry. The performance, combustion and emission characteristics were studied on a single cylinder, water cooled, direct injection, four stroke computerized diesel engine test rig. The characteristics were studied for three different dosing levels of graphene nanoparticle and three different fuel injection timings. It resulted in improved brake thermal efficiency, reduced unburnt hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emission. The addition of graphene nanoparticles and advancing the injection timing has resulted in a significant reduction in the combustion duration and a marginal increase in the peak cylinder pressure at all operational loads.


Keywords    Graphene; Nano particles; Surfactants; Simarouba; Biodiesel; Nano fuels; Injection Timing


چکیده    گرافن یک اتم کربن تک­لایه­ای است که اخیراً پیدا شده است و محققان را در طیف وسیعی از کاربردهای الهام داده است. سطح ویژه­ی این ماده تا 2630 مترمربع بر گرم و مقدار رسانایی حرارتی آن mK-1/3000 وات در دمای اتاق است. از لحاظ شیمیایی، واکنش­پذیرترین شکل کربن با یک اتم کربن در معرض واکنش از هر طرف است. پراکندگی پایدار گرافن با استفاده از سورفکتانت سدیم داودسیل سولفات به دست آمد. گرافن به وسیله­ی پراکندگی گرافن در مخلوط مایع متیل استر سیماروبا با دیزل تهیه شد. پراکندگی با استفاده از اسپکترومتری فرابنفش مریی مشخص شد. عملکرد، احتراق و ویژگی های انتشار بر روی موتور دیزل کامپیوتری آزمایشگاهی تک سیلندر تزریق مستقیم چهار مرحله­ای سردشده با آب مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. خصوصیات برای سه سطح مختلف مقادیر نانوذرات گرافن و سه زمان تزریق تزریق سوخت بررسی شد. این باعث بهبود بازده حرارتی و کاهش هیدروکربن­هاینسوخته و انتشار گاز مونوکسید کربن می شود. اضافه شدن نانو ذرات گرافنی و پیش­گیری از زمان تزریق موجب کاهش قابل توجهی در مدت احتراق و افزایش حاشیه­ای در فشار کلی سیلندر در تمام بارهای عملیاتی شده است.


1.      Basha, J.S. and Anand, R., "An experimental study in a ci engine using nanoadditive blended water–diesel emulsion fuel", International Journal of Green Energy,  Vol. 8, No. 3, (2011), 332-348.

2.      Sajith, V., Sobhan, C. and Peterson, G., "Experimental investigations on the effects of cerium oxide nanoparticle fuel additives on biodiesel", Advances in Mechanical Engineering,  Vol. 2, (2010), 581407.

3.      Jones, M., Li, C.H., Afjeh, A. and Peterson, G., "Experimental study of combustion characteristics of nanoscale metal and metal oxide additives in biofuel (ethanol)", Nanoscale Research Letters,  Vol. 6, No. 1, (2011), 246.

4.      Tyagi, H., Phelan, P.E., Prasher, R., Peck, R., Lee, T., Pacheco, J.R. and Arentzen, P., "Increased hot-plate ignition probability for nanoparticle-laden diesel fuel", Nano Letters,  Vol. 8, No. 5, (2008), 1410-1416.

5.      Basha, J.S. and Anand, R., "Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine using carbon nanotubes blended jatropha methyl ester emulsions", Alexandria Engineering Journal,  Vol. 53, No. 2, (2014), 259-273.

6.      Kannan, G., Karvembu, R. and Anand, R., "Effect of metal based additive on performance emission and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel", Applied Energy,  Vol. 88, No. 11, (2011), 3694-3703.

7.      Eftekhari, A. and Jafarkhani, P., "Curly graphene with specious interlayers displaying superior capacity for hydrogen storage", The Journal of Physical Chemistry C,  Vol. 117, No. 48, (2013), 25845-25851.

8.      Paramashivaiah, B. and Rajashekhar, C., "Studies on effect of various surfactants on stable dispersion of graphene nano particles  in  simarouba  biodiesel", in  IOP  Conference   Series:Materials Science and Engineering, IOP Publishing. Vol. 149,  (2016), 012083.

9.      Uddin, M.E., Kuila, T., Nayak, G.C., Kim, N.H., Ku, B.-C. and Lee, J.H., "Effects of various surfactants on the dispersion stability and electrical conductivity of surface modified graphene", Journal of Alloys and Compounds,  Vol. 562, (2013), 134-142.

10.    Standard, A., "D613,“standard test method for cetane number of diesel fuel oil”, ASTM., (2010).

11.    Wen, D., "Nanofuel as a potential secondary energy carrier", Energy & Environmental Science,  Vol. 3, No. 5, (2010), 591-600.

12.    Ranjan, M.S., Kumar, M.M. and Kumar, P.A., "Preparation of biodiesel from crude oil of simarouba glauca using CaO as a solid base catalyst", Research Journal of Recent Sciences,  Vol. 2277, (2012), 2502-2510.

13.    Bhandari, S., Deepa, M., Joshi, A.G., Saxena, A.P. and Srivastava, A.K., "Revelation of graphene-au for direct write deposition and characterization", Nanoscale research letters,  Vol. 6, No. 1, (2011), 424-432.

14.    Xian-Ju, W., Hai, L., Xin-Fang, L., Zhou-Fei, W. and Fang, L., "Stability of TiO2 and Al2O3 nanofluids", Chinese Physics Letters,  Vol. 28, No. 8, (2011), 086601.

15.    Allen, C., Mittal, G., Sung, C.-J., Toulson, E. and Lee, T., "An aerosol rapid compression machine for studying energetic-nanoparticle-enhanced combustion of liquid fuels", Proceedings of the Combustion Institute,  Vol. 33, No. 2, (2011), 3367-3374.

16.    Shahabuddin, M., Liaquat, A., Masjuki, H., Kalam, M. and Mofijur, M., "Ignition delay, combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with biodiesel", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,  Vol. 21, (2013), 623-632.

17.    Saraee, H.S., Jafarmadar, S., Taghavifar, H. and Ashrafi, S., "Reduction of emissions and fuel consumption in a compression ignition engine using nanoparticles", International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology,  Vol. 12, No. 7, (2015), 2245-2252.

18.    Pop, E., Varshney, V. and Roy, A.K., "Thermal properties of graphene: Fundamentals and applications", MRS Bulletin,  Vol. 37, No. 12, (2012), 1273-1281.

19.             Aalam, C.S., Saravanan, C. and Kannan, M., "Experimental investigation on CRDI system assisted diesel engine fulled by diesel with nanotubes", American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences,  Vol. 8, No. 3, (2015), 380-389.

International Journal of Engineering
E-mail: office@ije.ir
Web Site: http://www.ije.ir