IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications Vol. 31, No. 5 (May 2018) 759-769    Article in Press

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A. MohsenzadehLedari and A. ArshadiKhamseh
( Received: July 16, 2017 – Accepted in Revised Form: March 09, 2018 )

Abstract    In this paper, a three-echelon supply chain , including two producers, distributor and retailer who produce products in different brands have been considered. Any manufacturer, has a separate channel and the exclusive retailer offers their products, which have been prepared from the distributor (exclusive market) with discount or other manufacturer. In this paper pricing decisions on substitute products with different brands on the market has been developed in exclusive and non-exclusive markets for loyal and indifferent customers. The demand for products depend on the distance from brand and ideal product prices. In this model retailer buys product from distributor, but as in the real world ,we face with disruption risk in each channel between the retailer and distributor, only some percentage of orders will be met by distributor and the remains will be done as special orders by manufacturer. The aim of this paper is maximizing the profitability of the entire supply chain, so that optimal selling price to be determined in every channel. Finally, numerical examples and sensitivity analysis have been done on them .


Keywords    Pricing; Three echelon supply chain, Game theory, Disruption risk, Special order, Brand value, substitute product


چکیده    در این مقاله زنجیره تامین سه سطحی شامل دو تولید کننده ، توزیع کننده و خرده فروش ارائه شده که دو تولید کننده یک نوع کالا با کیفیت و برندهای متفاوت را تولید می کنند. هر تولید کننده، کانال مخصوص به خود را دارد که خرده فروش می تواند به صورت انحصاری کالای مربوط به تولید کننده خود را ارائه و از درصدی تخفیف در خرید کالا از توزیع کننده برخوردار شود( انحصاری) و یا کالا هر دو تولید کننده را ارائه کند(غیر انحصاری).در این مقاله تصمیمات قیمت گذاری کالاهای جایگزین یکسان با برند های متفاوت در بازار انحصاری و غیرانحصاری توسعه داده شده است. مشتریان به دو دسته مشتریان وفادار و مشتریان بی تفاوت تقسیم می شوند که تقاضا کالا برای مشتریان به فاصله از برند و فاصله قیمت محصول تا قیمت ایده آل بستگی دارد. در این مدل خرده فروش کالا مورد نیاز خود را از توزیع کننده خریداری می کند، ممکن است به دلایلی بین خرده فروش و توزیع کننده ریسک انقطاع بوجود آید و تنها درصدی از میزان سفارش خرده فروش توسط توزیع کننده قابل برآورده سازی می باشد و مقدار سفارش برآورده نشده به صورت سفارش ویژه به صورت مستقیم از تولید کننده خریداری می شود. هدف از این تحقیق بیشینه سازی سود کل زنجیره تامین بر اساس نظریه بازیهاست که مقادیر بهینه قیمت فروش در هر یک از حلقه های زنجیره تامین تعیین شود. در انتها کاربرد مدل با مثال عددی و سپس تحلیل حساسیت روی پارامترهای مهم آن نمایش داده شده است.


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