IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications - Special Issue - Sustainable Technologies for Water and Environment; Guest Editor Prof. Dr. Ahmad Fauzi Ismail and Associate Guest Editor Dr. Lau Woei Jye, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia
Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2018) 1318-1325    Article in Press

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( Received: December 14, 2017 – Accepted: March 21, 2018 )

Abstract    Biodiesel which were synthesis from transesterification reaction in the present of heterogeneous base catalyst has been intensively studied over the last decades. This catalyst has an excellent result in producing high percentage conversions of biodiesel without further purification and cleaning process which contribute to the water pollution and high water content in biodiesel product. So, this study was conducted to synthesize and characterize series of heterostructure Ni/Mg/Al2O3 catalysts with different parameters to test their effectiveness towards the catalytic transesterification reaction. Series of Ni/Mg/Al2O3 catalysts were synthesized by wetness impregnation method supported on γ-alumina beads. Three parameters were studied include calcination temperatures, dopant ratios to based and numbers of alumina coating. The activity of the catalyst in transesterification reaction was evaluated at 65ºC of reaction temperature, 3 hours of reaction time, 6% w/w of catalyst loading and 1:24 molar ratio of oil to methanol. The potential catalyst was characterized by N2 Adsorption Analysis, TEM (BIO-TEM) and CO2-TPD. Meanwhile, the performance of the catalyst was evaluated using GC-FID. From the data obtained, Ni/Mg(20:80)/Al2O3 catalyst calcined at 800°C and three times alumina coating have the highest weak and moderate basic sites that contribute to the highest percentage conversion of low grade palm oil to biodiesel compared to others. Besides that, BIO-TEM result shows that the particle was unhomogeneous shape with a mixture of square sheet and one dimensional heterostructure nano-rod particles was observed. The data obtained from CO2-TPD and N2 Adsorption Analysis (NAA) prove that high basicity of the Ni/Mg(20:80)/Al2O3 catalyst (2.80389 mmol/g) and high surface area (125 m2/g) had lead to the 78.53% of biodiesel conversion.


Keywords    Key words heterogeneous, heterostructure, transesterification, biodiesel, nano-rod



بیودیزل که از واکنش ترانس استریفیکاسیون در حال حاضر از کاتالیزور پایه ناهمگن ساخته شده است، در دهه های گذشته بطور گسترده ای مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است. این کاتالیزور یک نتیجه عالی در تولید درصد بالا تبدیل بیودیزل بدون تصفیه بیشتر و فرایند تمیز کردن است که به کاهش آلودگی آب و محتوای آب بالا در محصول بیودیزل کمک می کند. بنابراين، اين مطالعه به منظور توليد و دسته بندي کاتاليزورهاي نانوساختار Ni/Mg/Al2O3 با پارامترهاي مختلف براي تعيين اثربخشي آن ها در جهت واکنش کاتاليزوري ترانس استریفیکاسیون انجام شد. کاتالیزورهای سری Ni/Mg/Al2O3 با روش اشباع شدن رطوبت با دانه های γ-آلومینا سنتز شدند. سه پارامتر مورد مطالعه شامل دماسنج کلسیم، نسبت دوپینگ به مقیاس و تعداد پوشش آلومینا بود. فعالیت کاتالیزور در واکنش ترانس استریفیکاسیون در دمای 65 درجه سانتیگراد واکنش، 3 ساعت زمان واکنش، 6 درصد وزنی بر کیلوگرم بارگذاری کاتالیزور و نسبت مولی 1:24 روغن به متانول مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. کاتالیزور بالقوه با تجزیه و تحلیل جذب N2، TEM(BIO-TEM) و CO2-TPD مشخص شد. در همین حال، عملکرد کاتالیزور با استفاده از GC-FID مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. از داده های به دست آمده، کاتالیزور Ni/Mg/(20:80)/Al2O3 در دمای 800 درجه سانتیگراد کالسینه می شود و سه برابر پوشش آلومینا دارای بالاترین نقاط پایه ضعیف و متوسط هستند که به افزایش درصد تبدیل روغن نخل کم به بیودیزل در مقایسه با دیگران. علاوه بر این، نتایج BIO-TEM نشان می دهد که ذرات شکل غیرمعمول با مخلوطی از ورق مربع و ذرات نانو ذرات یک ساختار نانومتری مشاهده شده است. داده های به دست آمده از تجزیه و تحلیل جذب دی اکسید کربن (TPD) و N2 (NAA) نشان می دهد که پایه بالا Ni/Mg/(20:80)/Al2O3 کاتالیزور (2.80 mmol/g) و(125 m2/g) سطح بالایی از سطح 78.53% درصد از تبدیل بیودیزل.

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