IJE TRANSACTIONS B: Applications - Special Issue - Sustainable Technologies for Water and Environment; Guest Editor Prof. Dr. Ahmad Fauzi Ismail and Associate Guest Editor Dr. Lau Woei Jye, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia
Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2018) 1455-1463    Article in Press

downloaded Downloaded: 53   viewed Viewed: 1006

S. N. Zulkifli, HERLINA A. RAHIM and N. A. Subha
( Received: December 16, 2017 – Accepted: February 19, 2018 )

Abstract    The number of breakthrough pathogenic activity in water distribution network system is constantly increasing day by day especially at level of consumption. Bacterial growth or survival rate often relates to acidity and alkalinity of water. Sudden changes in pH value and temperature indicates a possibility of present bacterial contaminant in aqueous environment. The observation of pH- and temperature-based for tap water supply samples in Pasir Gudang regions therefore was determined. On the basis of the findings, the observed pH value was compared to the recommended range for pH tap and drinking water, which is between 6.5-8.5. A significant spread can be seen among the measured parameters within the range of pH and temperature at 6.00 to 8.65 and 19.20 to 32.00 °C, respectively. There is a statistically significant difference between each sampling regions based on the measured pH value ( 44.79, determined by one-way ANOVA. The pH value and temperature evidence a significant effects by the location of tap water samples near industrial regions. There also appears to be a negative Pearson correlation between the two water parameters in four out of five regions.


Keywords    Bacterial contaminant, Water quality, pH level, Water monitoring



تعداد دستیابی به فعالیت های بیماری زا در سیستم شبکه توزیع آب همواره روز به روز به خصوص در سطح مصرف رو به افزايش است. نرخ بقا و یا رشد باکتریایی اغلب مربوط به تولید آب است. تغییرات ناگهانی در مقدار pH و دما را نشان می دهد احتمال اين آلاينده باکتری در محیط آبی. مشاهده از pH و دما-بر اساس نمونه تامین آب در مناطق Pasir Gudang بنابراین گرديد. بر اساس يافته ها، مقدار pH مشاهده نسبت به محدوده توصیه می شود برای pH شیر و آب که بین 6.5 تا 8.5 بود. گسترش قابل توجهی میان پارامترهای اندازه گیری در محدوده pH و دما در 6.00-8.65 و 19.20-32.00 درجه سانتیگراد بود دیده می شود. تفاوت معني داري بين مناطق نمونه هر براساس مقدار اندازه گیری pH وجود دارد (DF_4 145 = 44.79 p-0.05) واريانس يك طرفه مشخص. مقدار pH و دما نشان دهنده تأثیر قابل توجهی از محل نمونه های شیر آب در مناطق صنعتی است. همچنین بین دو پارامتر آب در چهار منطقه از پنج منطقه منفی همبستگی پیرسون وجود دارد.

References    [1]          Asian Development Bank, “Quantifying Water and Energy Linkages in Irrigation: Experiences from Viet Nam,” Vietnam, (2017). [2]          Asian Water Development Outlook, “Measuring Water Security in Asia and the Pacific,” Manila, (2013). [3]          Richardson, S. D. and Ternes, T. A.,“Water analysis: emerging contaminants and current issues,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 83, (2014), 4614–4648. [4]          Geldreich, E. E. and LeChevallier, M. “Microbiological quality control in distribution systems,” in Water Encylopedia, John Wiley and Sons Inc., (2005). [5]          Kosse, P., Ciszek, R., Kolehmainen, M., Ikonen, J., Pitk, T. and Miettinen, I. T. “On-line detection of Escherichia coli intrusion in a pilot-scale drinking water distribution system,” Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 198, (2017), 384–392. [6]          Juhna, T., Birzniece, D., Larsson, S., Zulenkovs, D., Sharipo, A., Azevedo, N. F., Menard-Szczebara, F., Castagnet, S., Feliers, C. and Keevil, C. W., “Detection of Escherichia coli in Biofilms from Pipe Samples and Coupons in Drinking Water Distribution Networks,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 73, (2007), 7456–7464. [7]          Aziz, R. K., Khalifa, M. M. and Sharaf, R. R., “Contaminated water as a source of Helicobacter pylori infection : A review,” Journal of Advanced Research, Vol. 6, (2015), 539–547. [8]          Kim, U., Ravikumar, A., Seubert, J. and Figueira, S.,  “Detection of bacterial pathogens through microfluidic DNA sensors and mobile interface toward rapid, affordable, and point-of-care water monitoring,” IEEE EMBS Special Topic Conference on Point-of-Care Healthcare Technologies: Synergy Towards Better Global Healthcare, (2013). [9]          Avelar-gonzález, F. J., Harel, J. and Guerrero-barrera, A. L., “Waterborne pathogens: detection methods and challenges,” Pathogens, Vol. 4, (2015), 307–334. [10]        Maurer, L. M., Yohannes, E., Bondurant, S. S., Radmacher, M. and Slonczewski, J. L., “pH regulates genes for flagellar motility, catabolism and oxidative stress in Escherichia coli K-12 †,” Journal of Bacteriology, Vol. 187, (2005), 304–319. [11]        Vanhauteghem, D., Paul, G., Janssens, J., Lawaerts, A., Sys, S. and Boyen, F., “Exposure to the proton scavenger glycine under alkaline conditions induces Escherichia coli viability loss,” Public Library of Science, Vol. 8, (2013), 1–11. [12]        Padan, E., Bibi, E., Ito, M. and Krulwich, T. A., “Alkaline pH homeostasis in bacteria : new insights,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, Vol. 1717, (2011), 67–88. [13]        Zhao, T., Doyle, M. P. and Besser, R. E., “Fate of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli 0157 : H7 in apple cider with and without preservatives,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 59, (1993), 2526–2530. [14]        Environmental Protection Agency, Parameters of Water Quality: Interpretation and Standards. Ireland: Environmental Protection Agency, Ireland, (2001). [15]        Pasir Gudang Municipal Council, “Cousilator of Majlis Perbandaran Pasir Gudang,” Pasir Gudang Municipal Council, (2017). [Online]. Available: http://www.mppg.gov.my/en/mppg/profile/cousilors-profile. [Accessed: 30-June-2017]. [16]        Environmental Protection Agency, “Quick Guide To Drinking Water Sample Collection,” United States, (2005). [17]        American Public Health Association, “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, (1999). [Online]. Available: https://www.standardmethods.org/. [Accessed: 23-June-2016]. [18]        World Health Organization, Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, Fourth Edi. World Health Organization, (2011). [19]        World Health Organization, “Chapter 4: Water sampling and analysis,” in Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality: Surveillance and control of community supplies, Second Edi., Vol. 3, World Health Organization Geneva, (1997). [20]        Sacher, F. and Hambsch, B., “State-of-the-art in drinking water monitoring,” in TECHNEAU : Safe Drinking Water from Source to Tap, van den Hoven, T. and Kazner, C. (Eds.), London, UK: TECHNEAU, (2009). [21]        Payment, P., Waite, M. and Dufour, A., “Introducing parameters for the assessment of drinking water quality,” in Assessing Microbial Safety of Drinking Water: Improving Approaches and Methods, London, UK: IWA Publishing, (2003). [22]        Ohno, A., Kato, N., Yamada, K. and Yamaguchi, K., “Factors influencing survival of Legionella pneumophila serotype 1 in hot spring water and tap water,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 69, (2003), 2540–2547. [23]        Miller, H. C., Morgan, M., Wylie, J., Kaksonen, A., Sutton, D., Braun, K. and Puzon, G., “Elimination of Naegleria fowleri from bulk water and biofilm in an operational drinking water distribution system,” Water Research, Vol. 110, (2017), 15–26. [24]        Fish, K., Osborn, A. M. and Boxall, J. B., “Biofilm structures ( EPS and bacterial communities ) in drinking water distribution systems are conditioned by hydraulics and influence discolouration,” Journal of Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 593–594, (2017), 571–580. [25]        Leščešen, I., Pantelić, M., Dolinaj, D., Stojanović, V. and Milošević, D., “Statistical analysis of water quality parameters of the Drina River ( West Serbia ), 2004-11,” Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, Vol. 24, (2015), 555–561. [26]        Bhat, S. A., Meraj, G., Yaseen, S. and Pandit, A. K., “Statistical assessment of water Quality parameters for pollution source identification in Sukhnag Stream : an inflow stream of Lake Wular ( Ramsar Site ), Kashmir Himalaya,” Journal of Ecosystems, Vol. 2014, (2014), 1-18. [27]        USEPA, “Online Source Water Quality Monitoring for Water Quality Surveillance and Response Systems,” U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-09/documents/online_source_water_monitoring_guidance.pdf. [Accessed: 03-Oct-2017]. [28]        Environmental Protection Agency, “Ground Water Contamination,” Environmental Protection Agency, 2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-08/documents/mgwc-gwc1.pdf. [Accessed: 26-Sep-2017]. [29]        Environmental Protection Agency, “Source Water Protection Practices Bulletin. Managing Stormwater Runoff to Prevent Contamination of Drinking Water,” Washington, DC, USA, (2009). [30]        WHO, “Microbial fact sheets,” in: Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, World Health Organization, Vol. 1, (2011), 221–296. [31]        Bartram, J., Chartier, Y., Lee, J. V., Pond, K. and Surman-Lee, S., “Legionella and the Prevention of Legionellosis,” World Health Organization, Vol. 14, (2007), 278. [32]        Cabral, J. P. S., “Water microbiology, bacterial pathogens and water,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 7, (2010), 3657–3703. [33]        Evans, J. D., \\\"Straightforward Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences.\\\", University of California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, (1996).

International Journal of Engineering
E-mail: office@ije.ir
Web Site: http://www.ije.ir